NCN 2016/23/B/HS4/00650

Segmentation of electrical energy consumers using the stage-change model: Analysis of factors enhancing adoption of demand side management tools

Grant no.: NCN 2016/23/B/HS4/00650
Funding agency: National Science Centre (NCN), Poland
Funding scheme: OPUS
Funding period: 18.08.2017-1.08.2019 (24 months)
Budget: 261 300 PLN
Title in Polish: Segmentacja konsumentów energii elektrycznej za pomocą fazowego modelu zmiany: Analiza czynników wpływających na akceptację narzędzi zarządzania stroną popytową

Research team:

Principal Investigator (Kierownik):

Senior Investigator (Główny wykonawca):

Collaborators (Współpracownicy):

– Ph.D. / M.Sc. / B.Sc. student

Aims and scope:

In the near future nearly all Polish households will have smart meters (SM) installed. The devices will enable direct communication between end-users and distribution system operators (DSO). Consumers will have an access to web-platforms (SM software, SM platforms, e-platforms) or other smart tools that will let them find easily information about their current energy consumption and electricity prices. Although the prospect appears optimistic, survey research currently shows that energy consumers are hesitant to accept novelties in the energy market.

The general aim of this project is twofold. First, we will identify factors at roots of the attitude-behavior gap observed in the context of SM adoption. Using survey data we will examine the effect of consumers’ environmental motivation, knowledge, awareness, economical status, households’ infrastructure and demographics on the willingness to adopt DSM/DR solutions such as smart meters. We will also perform the segmentation of electricity consumers on the basis of how ready they are to adopt novel energy solutions such as smart meters and smart metering platforms. A theoretical background for this segmentation will be the comprehensive stage model of self-regulated behavioral change (SSCB, Bamberg, 2013a). According to this model a decision to engage in a given behavior is a gradual process and consumers in different stages require different means to proceed to the next one.

The second aim of our project is to verify whether the segmentation of consumers improves social marketing strategies promoting DSM/DR tools to the certain group of clients. We will verify whether social marketing strategies (so called interventions), which take into account stage-changes in adoption process are more effective than strategies ignoring the dynamics of adoption.


  1. Preparation of the main questionnaire. Conducting and analysis of the base measurement (T0, N = 600). Consumers’ segmentation.
  2. Preparation and conducting of the interventions.
  3. Preparation, conducting and analysis of the post-intervention measurement  (T1, N = ca. 300) and the follow-up measurement (T2, N = ca. 250).
  4. Analysis of the effect of interventions.
  5. Analysis of factors enhancing and hindering adoption of DSM/DR tools.


Peer-reviewed articles in JCR-listed journals

2020 (4), 2019 (2), 2018 (2)

  1. Y.Chawla, A. Kowalska-Pyzalska, B.Oralhan (2020) Attitudes and opinions of social media users towards smart meters’ rollout in Turkey, Energies 13(3), 732, 1-27  (
  2. Y.Chawla, A.Kowalska-Pyzalska, P.D. Silveira (2020) Marketing and communication channels for diffusion of electricity smart meters in Portugal, Telematics & Informatics 50, 101385 (
  3. Y. Chawla, A. Kowalska-Pyzalska, A. Skowrońska-Szmer (2020) Perspectives of smart meters’ roll-out in India: an empirical analysis of consumers’ awareness and preferences, Energy Policy 143, 111798, 1-15 (
  4. A. Kowalska-Pyzalska, K. Byrka, J. Serek (2020) How to foster the adoption of electricity smart meters? A longitudinal field study of residential consumers, Energies, 13(18), 4737, 1-19 (
  5. Y. Chawla, A. Kowalska-Pyzalska (2019) Public awareness and consumer acceptance of smart meters among Polish social media users, Energies 12(14), 2759 (
  6. A. Kowalska-Pyzalska, K. Byrka (2019) Determinants of the willingness to energy monitoring by residential consumers: A case study in the city of Wroclaw in Poland, Energies 12(5), 907  (
  7. A. Kowalska-Pyzalska (2018) What makes consumers adopt to innovative energy services in the energy market? A review of incentives and barriers, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 82, 3570-3581 ( Earlier working paper version available from RePEc:
  8. T. Weron, A. Kowalska-Pyzalska, R. Weron (2018) The role of educational trainings in the diffusion of smart metering platforms: An agent-based modeling approach, Physica A 505, 591-600 (doi: 10.1016/j.physa.2018.03.086). Working paper version available from RePEc:

Book chapters

  1. A. Kowalska-Pyzalska (2019) Eco-innovative energy management systems : practical advices for the enterprises based on the empirical survey and simulation approach. In: Knowledge, economy, society: challenges for contemporary economics – global, regional, network and organizational perspective, eds. J. Kopeć, B. Mikuła, Toruń: Wydawnictwo Dom Organizatora, 203-213.